The earliest traces of a prehistoric man settling on the territory of Jadar and Loznica, with a certainty can be assigned to earlier Neolithic Period, that is Starčevo culture (4500 – 3000 BC). On the basis of archeological records, you can gain an insight into different population that inhabited this area. The emphasis is on Illyrians, who left much of their material culture in Jadar, and the name itself originates from Illyrians.
Considerable changes occurred after Romans had conquered the Balkan Peninsula and turned our territory into a Roman province. According to new division, Jadar was assigned to Dalmatia province. In ancient times, the first settlement – today’s territory of Loznica, was known as the station ‘15 miles,’ whilst the most significant settlement in Jadar was Genzis, and it occupied, approximately, the territory of today’s village Lešnica. According to tradition, Loznica got its name after a grapevine, which was grown in these areas in the 3rd century AD, during the reign of Roman emperor Probus. Loznica was first mentioned in the charter of king Milutin, when Katarina, his brother’s Dragutin wife, raised a monastery Tronoša (1317).
Out of 37 houses in Loznica, as stated in the census, 26 belonged to Muslims and 11 to Christians. In 1600, Loznica became a purely muslim settlement consisting of 55 houses. During that period, Loznica and Jadar joined Zvornik Region with the headquarters in Zvornik, whereas Zvornik Region became part of the Bosnian province.
Wishing to get liberated from the Turkish Empire, the people of Loznica actively participated in the battle of Serbian people, immediately after the outbreak of the First Serbian Uprising in 1804. The battle was extremely important, as Turks kept well their frointer part of the territory they used to levy taxes, enquip their army, and reach the central part of Serbia. During the Uprising batlles from 1804 to 1813, at the same time, Loznica with its periphery suffered numerous and hard battles against Turks. Except for 1813, Serbs always managed not only to defeat, but to exile Turks across the river Drina as well. In 1813, the return of Turks in Loznica and joining of Loznica and Jadar to Zvornik Region put people into an extremely difficult situation, hard to cope with.
Loznica and Jadar became part of the Principality of Serbia, during the reign of Miloš Obrenović and introducing the edict of Sultan of Mahmud II in November 1833, which proclaimed returning of the six regions to Serbia. When Loznica and Jadar became part of the Principality of Serbia, after 1834, Turkish ownership of land was terminated, and it was declared to be a free peasant land that abolished feudalism.
The district of Jadar was included into the region of Podrinje , while Loznica became their headquarters and remains until the end of the 19th century, when it was replaced by Šabac. In the 30’s of the 19th century, Loznica had 295 houses and 1203 inhabitants. It was the center of administrative and political authority of Podrinje; development of education system started; a hospital opened in 1882; the construction of industrial facilities began; development of craftsmanship, trading and banking. In the beginning of the 20th century, the railway Šabac – Loznica – Banja Koviljača started building. Small town of Loznica, as former Turkish settlement, gradually turned into a modern city.
The wars of 1912 – 1913, and especially the First World War (1914 – 1918), prevented development of agriculture for a while and considerably reduced the population of Loznica and its periphery. After the end of the WWI, Loznica was still at the hub of the district and region with 5000 inhabitants. Several post-war years were characterized by the reconstruction and relative progress of agriculture, which defined many cities of the former Kingdom of Yugoslavia.
The consequences of Global economic crisis of 1929 – 1930 were obvious in the district of Jadar and Loznica, when the prices of agricultural goods went down. Economic uprise began in the middle 30’s with the opening of trade and cratft shops in Loznica. In the same period, German indusrialists took over the antimony mine in Loznica which strengthen the economy. However, that uprise in the economy of Loznica and Jadar ceased immediately after the outbreak of the Second World War (1941 – 1945).
THE LIBERATION OF LOZNICA on August 31, 1914
In the first post-war years, Loznica went through intensive change of economic and social structure of the population. Total changes of economic structure occured at the late 50’s, when Viskoza – viscose and pulp industry, was built and started regular manufacturing. The scope and importance of industrial production influenced rapid development of other economic fields in Loznica (traffic, trading, civil engineering, craftsmanship, banking etc.). They soon became a significant factor in futher eonomic development and improving citizens’ standard of living. Sudden industrial development in Loznica had a postive impact on life conditions, structure and employement of the citizens.
Alongside industrial development and the construction of economic facilities, Loznica with its suburbs was in the process of development as well. From 1945 to 1975, 3500 apartments were built as a private property. Five primary schools, four high schools, a music school and three preschools for children were built and reconstructed. Cultural center “Vuk Karadžić” was reconstructed, whilst sports and recreational center “Lagator,” and Health and Medical center “Dr. Milenko Marin ” were built.
Loznica, which had several thousands inhabitants after the war in accordance with a general urban planning from 1964, has grown into a modern city with a population of 40,000.